Image of the Quarter
Strongly amplified HER2 FISH - 'Mouse-over' for arrows:

strongly amplified HER2 FISH

The green arrow points to a clump of HER2 signals (pink/red in colour).
The blue arrow points to one of two CEP17 signals (faint blue dots) in the cell.
Most of the cells in this image are diploid & many cells show two clumps of HER2 signals.



The site is undergoing a substantial upgrade and I apologise for any inconvenience caused. In the first instance I will be starting with the home page to improve its rendering on different sized devices e.g. mobiles or tablets. I am then going to start working through the content page by page upgrading and updating the images and text. I have now upgraded the section on benign & malignant microcalcification and am well underway with the work on the cancer pages. Hopefully further upgrades will be simpler having solved a number of important coding problems.

The Image of the Quarter is unchanged - a really lovely example of amplified HER2 FISH.

The site is now over ten years old - it went live in February/March 2006. I am grateful to all the vistors, colleagues and trainees who help to encourage its further growth and development. Visitor numbers are steady at about 1,000 a month. The most frequently accessed pages remain broadly unchanged from previous years.

I am absolutely delighted to continue to work with colleagues on the LORIS Trial looking at the potential for conservative management of low risk DCIS.

Background, aims & optimum viewing:


An easily accessible entry point to the understanding of the pathology of breast diseases
Uses the flexibility of the web to allow rapid updating


Trainees in breast pathology
Teachers seeking educational material
The wider public


Cross-specialty topics such as immunohistochemistry and specimen handling protocols
Very richly illustrated with 'mouse-over' features on many illustrations
Extensive hyperlinking throughout site - easily navigable


Internet Explorer 8.0 and above, Microsoft Edge, Firefox 2.0 and above or Opera 9.0 with backwards compatibility.
Screen resolution of 1280x800
Broadband internet connection


An evolving resource to cover all main areas of breast pathology
Developing links with other educational sites
Providing topical information
Developing interactive functionality


Dr Jeremy Thomas, Formerly Lead Consultant Pathologist, Edinburgh Breast Unit

Summary of topics covered on this site:


Specimen handling; BMS Trimming;
Reporting protocols; Communication;
Links to screening documents;


Immunohistochemistry; Genetics

Benign &

Epithelial proliferations - typical and atypical;
Fibroadenomas and related lesions;
Sclerosing lesions; Inflammations; Fibromatosis


Carcinoma in situ;
Common and uncommon cancers;
Grading and staging breast cancer;
Prognosis of breast cancer

It is emphasised that these pages are complementary to the many excellent texts and aids available to the student of breast pathology. The author recommends the following references as a starting point:

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Site last updated 21/05/2019